Could the mining difficulty adjust in real time, not only when blocks are found? (NOTE: Not asking about retargetting after every block but continuously as a function of time.) I'm worried about how Bitcoin (and many other cryptos) change the difficulty. The basic idea is that the difficulty is adjusted every N blocks (N=2016 for Bitcoin and N=1 for Monero). That is, a difficulty can change only when a block is found. The problem is that if hashrate suddenly drops significantly, say 99%, then it would take 100x more time than normally to reach new lower difficulty. The drop could happen if the price of the coin drops and thus mining isn't anymore profitable. Network slows down and the price goes even more down and thus even more miners stop mining, and thus the coin might die. This seems like a very unstable system to me. I don't see much incentive for anyone to mine bitcoin if the price drops dramatically. The only incentive for some people to mine would be that they have lots of coins and they don't want the system to die. Not sure if this is enough. To avoid this problem, could the difficulty adjust in real time, not only when blocks are found? That is, the difficulty requirement for a valid block would depend on the time it was found. The difficulty would decrease as a function of time, thus eventually a block will be found very easily. For instance, if 2 hours has passed since the last block, the difficulty could have already dropped to 1% of what it has been for the previous blocks. The difficulty requirement of block N at time T would be a decreasing function of T and depends on the timestamps and difficulties of past blocks somehow. For instance, the difficulty could be a exponentially decaying function of time since the 10th last block and the mean difficulty of those 10 blocks. The difficulty of a mined block must be at least as great as given by this function in order for it to be valid. So the timestamp of a block becomes an important part of the block data. Would this idea make sense? Is it implemented in any coin? Or is there some reason why it is not a problem that the difficulty adjusts when a block is found? Login To add answer/comment