# Powershell: how to turn an array of objects into an array of integers?

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#### Gvidas28

##### Guest
Gvidas28 Asks: Powershell: how to turn an array of objects into an array of integers?
I create an array of objects that hold the lengths of files with this command:

Code:
$lengths = dir -File | Sort-Object -Descending | Select-Object Length -First 5 However, I want this to be an array of integers, not objects, so I can edit the values easily. How can I convert this$lengths object array into an integer array?

Thank You!

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#### Metric for binary imbalanced classification - Case of penalized classification (class_weight = 'balanced')

BoS_88 Asks: Metric for binary imbalanced classification - Case of penalized classification (class_weight = 'balanced')
I have a binary classification task with substantial class imbalance (99% negative - 1% positive). My task is to maximise the TP rate, while keeping the FN as low as possible.

I have opted to use a tree-based algorithm (Random Forest), after reading it is a good algorithm for imbalanced tasks. I also decided not to do Oversampling/Undersampling/SMOTE in order not to alter the data distribution. Instead, I'll do penalized classification, by setting class_weight = 'balanced'.

Is there a prefered (scoring) metric for hyperparameter turning (GrideSearchCV) for the case of penalized classification?

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#### Does the decidability of halting problem implies the decidability of special halting problem?

MR.-c Asks: Does the decidability of halting problem implies the decidability of special halting problem?
The halting problem H is the following problem: $H = \{⟨g, m⟩ | \text{ encoding}^{−1} (g) \text{ halts on m}\}$.

The special halting problem $H_0$ is the following special case: $H_0 = \{⟨g⟩ | \text{ encoding}^{−1} (g) \text{ halts on g}\}$.

We proved that $H_0$ is not decidable, and I was wondering that since $H_0$ is considered a subproblem of $H$ then can we say (even if it's incorrect, just an example) if we somehow proved that $H$ is decidable does it implies that $H_0$ is necessarily decidable ? or everything holds for $H$ should hold for $H_0$ right?

I tried to ask the newly chatGPT to test it and it says:

In summary, even though H0 is a subset of the halting problem, this does not necessarily mean that everything that holds for the halting problem also holds for H0. H0 is a specific subset of the instances of the halting problem, so it is possible for H0 to have different properties than the halting problem.

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#### [Solved] Looking for an automated method for headwater watershed delineation at county scale

• Kurtis_Fisher
• Geography
• Replies: 0
Kurtis_Fisher Asks: Looking for an automated method for headwater watershed delineation at county scale
I am hoping to delineate watersheds, which are extremely small, across a large area.

My objective is to create a workflow that will delineate all head water catchments through an automated process. I am new to automation and coding, and my experience thus far has been with individual sites using the watershed tools (fill, flow accumulation, direction, etc.) in ArcMap.

These watersheds are uphill from head water streams, and these headwater streams are not represented by National Hydrography Dataset flowlines. NHD lines rarely reflect actual headwaters in my study area and so I am attempting to identify them myself. Below is an example of a headwater that has larger than natural catchment to storm water drainage. Ignore the blue line.

I would like to identify catchments at this scale across the entire county, and hopefully determine their change in size from hydrologic alterations, such as this one. My question is if anyone knows of an automated way to achieve this, as I would be running an unrealistic amount of watershed functions through model builder to do it otherwise.

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#### [Solved] Get probability time-series from Dynamic World dataset

• Geography
• Replies: 0
I am trying to use the Dynamic World service in earth engine.

For each 10sq meters every 10 min, it contains probabilities associated with 8 possibilities of land cover, like forest, grass, water... I have seen many code examples on how to use it to generate maps, but I wanted to be able to extract the probability values, preferably in python. I have seen many tutorials teaching how to plot graphs using this data, but I can't manage to get the probabilities themselves, like this one.

This code for example:

Code:
import ee
# Trigger the authentication flow.
ee.Authenticate()
# Initialize the library.
ee.Initialize()

geometry = ee.Geometry.Point([-89.4235, 43.0469])
startDate = '2020-01-01';
endDate = '2021-01-01';

.filterDate(startDate, endDate)
.filterBounds(geometry))

probabilityBands = [
'water', 'trees', 'grass', 'flooded_vegetation', 'crops', 'shrub_and_scrub',
'built', 'bare', 'snow_and_ice'
]

dwTimeSeries = dw.select(probabilityBands)
dwTimeSeries.getInfo()

Returns a bunch of metadata info, but no probabilities.

Thanks!

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#### A spinning charged particle in a magnetic field

• MKO
• Physics
• Replies: 0
MKO Asks: A spinning charged particle in a magnetic field
Consider a particle of electric charge $q$ and mass $m$. Let it have magnetic moment ${\bf \mathfrak{m}}$ (so the particle spins around itself, but its size is negligible). I think that the equations of motion of this particle in a magnetic field ${\bf B}$ are \begin{eqnarray} m\overset{\cdot\cdot}{\bf r}=q\frac{\dot{{\bf r}}}{c}\times {\bf B(r)}+({\bf {\mathfrak{m}}}\cdot\nabla){\bf B(r)},\\ \dot{{\bf m}}=\frac{g}{2}{\bf B}\times {\bf \mathfrak{m}}, \end{eqnarray} where $g$ is a gyromagnetic ratio.

1) Is it something well known? (I believe so.)

2) Does there exist a Lagrangian for which this is the Euler-Lagrange equation?

Remark. In a homogeneous magnetic field the second equation corresponds to the Larmor precession.

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#### What is the relation between scattering cross-section and mass of the decaying particle?

• dark_knight
• Physics
• Replies: 0
dark_knight Asks: What is the relation between scattering cross-section and mass of the decaying particle?
I'm confused how to compute the scattering cross-section of a decay channel from the mass of the particles.

1. A vector $\rho_0$ meson can decay into a pair of pseudo-scalar pions. So what would be the probability that the decay occurs through the channel where end products are charged pions?

3.

How does the scattering cross-section relate to the mass? The only method I was using till now, was calculating it by iso-spin conservation method.

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